Snail Memory Transplant Performed Using RNA, Scientists Say
Snail Memory Transplant Performed Using RNA, Scientists Say
WIKIMEDIA GENNY ANDERSON
15 May, 2018, 11:39
For decades, researchers have tried to pinpoint how, when, and where memories form.
"What we are talking about are very specific kinds of memories, not the sort that says what happened to me on my fifth birthday, or who is the president of the United States", said Glanzman, whose study appears in the journal eNeuro.
The type of RNA relevant to these findings is believed to regulate a variety functions in the cell involved with the development and disease. They received one shock every 20 minutes, five times in a row followed by five more after 24 hours. The shocks enhance the snail's defensive withdrawal reflex, a response it displays for protection from potential harm.
According to the BBC, the team observed that sensitized snails had a defensive contraction of up to 50 seconds, whereas the specimens that weren't familiar with the electric shock only contracted for about a second.
The life scientists extracted RNA from the nervous systems of marine snails that received the tail shocks the day after the second series of shocks, and also from marine snails that did not receive any shocks. Here, it is reported that RNA extracted from the central nervous system of Aplysia given long-term sensitization training induced sensitization when injected into untrained animals; furthermore, the RNA-induced sensitization, like training-induced sensitization, required DNA methylation.
The experiment revealed that the recipients of the "memory transplant" contracted for about 40 seconds when tapped, suggesting that the RNA injections had transferred the memory of the electric shock to the unsensitized snails.
"It's as though we transferred the memory", said Glanzman, who is also a member of UCLA's Brain Research Institute. Like all mollusks, these snails have groups of neurons called ganglia, rather than brains.
Glanzman wanted to know if the RNA from shocked snails actually affected the neuronal connections of the snails receiving the injections any differently than RNA from nonshocked snails. Zapping the culture with a bit of current excited the sensory neurons much more than neurons treated with RNA from nonshocked snails.
An even closer look showed the new RNA even changed the way the snails' sensory (but not motor) neurons behaved in a petri dish. The memory is not stored in the RNA itself, he speculates-instead, noncoding RNA produces epigenetic changes in the nucleus of neurons, thereby storing the memory. The team found that the snail synapses built to "store" a memory weren't necessarily the synapses that were removed from the neural circuits in the memory-erasing experiments.
"If memories were stored at synapses, there is no way our experiment would have worked", he said.
There will be several key races in the state including several Congressional races and the Republican nomination for Governor . Two races in our area are being watched closely, the Democratic primary in the 7th district and the Republican Senate primary.
Scientists say the number of active fissures spawned by the Kilauea (kih-luh-WAY'-uh) volcano in Hawaii is 17, not 18. Cracks along the highway have worsened in the last few days, with authorities fearing even more fissures could form.
Rosoboronexport has long-standing significant contracts and business ties with India and other countries. The recent developments have also meant that numerous powers have also been holding talks with Putin.
Democratic Senator Catherine Cortez Masto of Nevada, who was recruited by Reid to replace him, wished him a speedy recovery. The former Senate Democratic leader declined to seek re-election in 2016 after more than three decades in Congress.
NBC was admittedly "treading water" in the winter between editions of "The Voice", during the last few years, Greenblatt said. The format will be a championship tournament of past favorite performers and winners from global editions of the show.
While UFC president Dana White and others have been critical of Liddell's return, citing health reasons, Liddell isn't anxious . He was knocked out by Rich Franklin that year at UFC 115, his third consecutive knockout loss.
Rapoport also reports that the incident report cited a person who was lying on a bench as their source . Per AZCentral, Kirk and some friends were throwing rocks at cars while leaving the golf tournament.
Kushner, the President's son-in-law and senior adviser, has been tasked with overseeing Israeli-Palestinian peace efforts. Reports indicate that Israeli forces used tear gas and possibly sniper fire against the demonstrators.
It's possible he is reusing the themes from the original game, but will be updating them for a more modern sound for the remake. We came upon this interview through a Japanese magazine article regarding the Final Fantasy 7 Brasso de Bravo musical event.
The company promises that it is ideal for the front desk, and other office spaces or meetings rooms. But you'd still need quite a bit of room to fit HP's upcoming AiO into your living space.
Maroons star Cameron Smith quits weeks before Origin opener
Smith retires having played a record 42 State of Origin matches for the Maroons, while he represented the Kangaroos 56 times. Queensland Maroons half Cooper Cronk celebrates try against NSW Blues with teammates Billy Slater and Cameron Smith .
SPDR S&P Internet ETF (XWEB) Rises 0.66% for May 13
Investors will commonly use Williams %R in conjunction with other trend indicators to help spot possible stock turning points. Once you've confirmed the trend by recognizing price as being below or above the cloud, you can move to the moving averages.
North Korean delegation visits China
The North Korean envoys went to the Diaoyutai state guesthouse after their arrival. Kang and Li met secretly in Shenyang right after the regime's first nuclear test.
Scientists Develop Common Cold Cure
Early studies in the lab are promising but it still needs to be tested in animal and human studies before it could hit the market. Finding two specific compounds, the team produced a novel molecule called IMP-1088, which specifically inhibits NMT.
Trump to meet Kim Jong Un in Singapore for summit
Singapore is an ideal site for the summit because Singapore historically has been an honest broker between East and West. It also has hosted regional meetings, including the Association of Southeast Asian Nations summits in 2007 and 2018.
British rugby player dies in Colombo
A British amateur rugby player has died and a team-mate is critically ill after visiting a nightclub while on tour in Sri Lanka . A team of 22 British Rugby players has arrived in Sri Lanka on 10th May to participate in a friendly Rugby tournament.