Bottas's main challenge from behind came at the start when a fast-starting Max Verstappen pulled alongside into Turn 1, but Bottas held onto the inside line for Turn 2 and forced the Red Bull driver to back out.
Hartley crashed out early at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve after an opening lap collision.
Defending four-time champion Briton Hamilton finished fifth, extending his run of points-scoring finishes to a record 32 races, but he slipped a point behind German Vettel in the title race.
"They've been waiting long enough for Ferrari to win here", Vettel said. "I'm happy for them".
Toto Wolff says the Canadian GP weekend serves as a "major wake-up call" to Mercedes to get to grips with the "new reality" of F1's expanded battle for honours.
Vettel said he was "not too bothered" about retaking a lead he last held after the Chinese Grand Prix back in April.
His engine was six races old but Hamilton would have expected better.
Mercedes were never in the victory equation, having not got engine updates ready in time for the race while Ferrari and Red Bull both had new parts. "It's unbelievable. I said yesterday how much this place means to Ferrari and to have a race like we had today is unbelievable", said Vettel. At the end I was just praying the vehicle stays fine, nothing would break.
Red Bull's Ricciardo was denied the fastest lap by the early flag waving which meant that did not count.
Vettel had no such trouble, leaving the jostling behind him as he steered through the 4.36-kilometer track named for the Ferrari driver and Montreal native who earned his first Formula One victory here 40 years ago. It's not satisfactory, luckily it didn't affect the result but it may need us to review procedures and make sure we have a very simple procedure for every circuit.
With Vettel's team mate Kimi Raikkonen taking sixth, Ferrari also closed the gap on Mercedes in the constructors' standings, with the deficit now down to 17 points.
The day was less positive for two-time world champion Fernando Alonso, who was celebrating his 300th Formula One race.
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US President Donald Trump speaks to the press as he leaves the G7 Summit in the Charlevoix town of La Malbaie, Quebec, Canada. That was Justin Trudeau's late father, who served several terms as Canada's prime minister, starting in the late 1960s.
Lane, Glenda Jackson , the lifetime-achievement winners Chita Rivera and Andrew Lloyd Webber , and, in spirit, Donna Summer. Robert DeNiro stunned the crowd at the Tony Awards Sunday by sending a profanity-filled message to President Donald Trump .
Trump himself told reporters on Saturday that the summit was not contentious and called his relationship with G7 allies a "10". Reacting to Mr Trump's tweets , Mr Trudeau's office said: "We are focused on everything we accomplished here at the summit".
If you are experiencing mental health issues or suicidal feelings contact Lifeline on 13 11 14 or BeyondBlue 1300 224 636. I feel like I've stolen a auto - a really nice vehicle - and I keep looking in the rear-view mirror for flashing lights.
Nadal celebrated in relatively low key fashion, but then there is not much novelty value in this. "It's fantastic , bravo. One down-the-line forehand victor landed right at the baseline, leaving Thiem sagging his shoulders and muttering.
Last month's legislative elections were won by an alliance headed by the populist Shia cleric Moqtada Sadr. Parliament on Wednesday passed a law that mandated a nationwide manual recount of votes from the election.
A grandstand finish looked possible until Bottas ran off at Turn One and took to the grass before recovering. It was Ferrari's first win in Canada since 2004 and came from their first pole there in 17 years.
Harry and Meghan to visit Australia and New Zealand
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Samsung announces midrange Galaxy J3 & J7 (2018)
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Cuba said it sent investigators to the home who found no potential source of a sound and were not granted access to the official. Those affected have suffered a range of symptoms including hearing loss, dizziness, fatigue, cognitive issues and sleep loss.
'Fallout 76' brings the apocalypse to West Virginia
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As G7 feuds, Xi and Putin play up their own club
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Afghanistan whitewash Bangladesh in last ball thriller
Mushfiq took his time to settle down but came out of his shell just when the match looked like slipping out of Bangladesh's hand. Earlier, a combined effort by top and middle order batsman helped Afghanistan post a fighting 145/6 in the allotted 20 overs.